This page was last changed on 3 July 2020, at 16:12. Edward led troops in battle in 893, and must have been of marriageable age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894. She may have been related to St Dunstan, the aristocratic tenth-century Archbishop of Canterbury. [30] In the following year, the Northumbrian Danes retaliated by raiding Mercia, but on their way home they were met by a combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Vikings suffered a disastrous defeat. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, one of the two jarls who had led the raids, Hroald, was killed, as was the brother of the other jarl. His eldest sister, Æthelflæd, was probably born about a year after her parents' marriage, and Edward was brought up with his youngest sister, Ælfthryth; Yorke argues that he was therefore probably nearer in age to Ælfthryth than Æthelflæd. Charters were usually issued when the king made grants of land, and it is possible that Edward followed a policy of retaining property which came into his hands to help finance his campaigns against the Vikings. [41] When Edward came to the throne Wessex had two dioceses, Winchester, held by Denewulf, and Sherborne, held by Asser. Edward the Elder (c. 874-877-17 July 924) was a West Saxon nobleman. Three men have been credited with being the first king of England – Alfred the Great, his son Edward the Elder and Edward’s son and Alfred’s grandson, Athelstan. Mercians were prominent at the courts of Alfred and Edward, and the Mercian dialect and scholarship commanded West Saxon respect. Pauline Stafford describes Æthelflæd as "the last Mercian queen",[25] while in Charles Insley's view Mercia kept its independence until Æthelflæd's death in 918. The British princes, including Howel the Good, Prince of Wales, or Wealas (Anglo-Saxon for foreigner) and Cledauc accepted Edward the Elder as their overlord. The armies of Cambridge and East Anglia also submitted, and by the end of the year the only Danish armies still holding out were those of four of the Five Boroughs, Leicester, Stamford, Nottingham, and Lincoln. [18], Alfred died on 26 October 899 and Edward succeeded to the throne, but Æthelwold disputed the succession. He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd se Grēata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King of Wessex upon his father's death in 899. He was the eldest son of King Alfred the Great and Ealhswith of Mercia.Throughout his childhood England was subject to Viking attacks and Edward’s education included lessons on … [26] Michael Davidson contrasts the 903 charters with one of 901 in which the Mercian rulers were "by grace of God, holding, governing and defending the monarchy of the Mercians". [a] His cousin, Aethelheim, was older and was the son of Alfred's older brother Athelred of Wessex. [14] The appearance of the Viking leader Ragnvald in York slowed his progress. In the early 880s Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, the ruler of western Mercia, accepted Alfred's lordship and married his daughter Æthelflæd, and around 886 Alfred adopted the new title King of the Anglo-Saxons as the ruler of all Anglo-Saxons not subject to Danish rule. Edward the Elder was the King of Wessex from 899 until his death in 924. Æthelstan was sent to be brought up in Mercia by Æthelflæd and Æthelred, but it is not known whether this was Alfred's idea or Edward's. In 910 a Mercian and West Saxon army inflicted a decisive defeat on an invading Northumbrian army, ending the threat from the northern Vikings. [16] Together they had: Edward married secondly, Elfleda, a daughter of Æthelhelm. [47] It acquired relics of the Breton Saint Judoc, which probably arrived in England from Ponthieu in 901, and the body of one of Alfred's closest advisers, Grimbald, who died in the same year and who was soon venerated as a saint. Edward was remembered by the New Minster as a benefactor, but at the Old Minster as rex avidus (greedy king). But he wasn't coronated until Whitsunday (8 June) of 900. There was increasing confusion in the period as to what was really bookland; Edward urged prompt settlement in bookland and folkland disputes, and his legislation established that jurisdiction belonged to the king and his officers.[62]. This is the only known case of an Anglo-Saxon prince and princess receiving the same upbringing. Prior to this conference, no monographs had been published on Edward's reign, whereas his father has been the subject of numerous biographies and other studies.[76]. Edward's first wife was Egwina. In 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. Ultimately, the ideology of the 'Kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons' may have been less successful in achieving the absorption of Mercia and more something which I would see as a murky political coup." He was largely ignored by modern historians until the 1990s, and Nick Higham described him as "perhaps the most neglected of English kings", partly because few primary sources for his reign survive. The episode suggests that south-east Wales fell within the West Saxon sphere of power, unlike Brycheiniog just to the north, where Mercia was dominant. Edward's mother died in 902, and he buried her and Alfred there, moving his father's body from the Old Minster. Edward the Elder, king of the Anglo-Saxons between c.899-924, succeeded to the throne following the death of his father Alfred the Great. [58] Charters rarely survive unless they concerned property which passed to the church and were preserved in their archives, and another possibility is that Edward was making grants of property only on terms which ensured that they returned to male members of the royal house; such charters would not be found in church archives. [22], In London in 886 Alfred had received the formal submission of "all the English people that were not under subjection to the Danes", and thereafter he adopted the title Anglorum Saxonum rex (King of the Anglo-Saxons), which is used in his later charters and all but two of Edward's. He was king from 899 until his death in 924. The Vikings were defeated in 915 by the armies of Hereford and Gloucester, and gave hostages and oaths to keep the peace. The East Anglians were forced to pay off the Vikings, who invaded Northumbria the following year. Modern historians regard him as the first King of England and one of the greatest Anglo-Saxon kings. Nelson argues that while this may have been proposed by Edward to support the accession of his own son, on the other hand it may have been intended by Alfred as part of a scheme to divide the kingdom between his son and grandson. In his view: Edward continued Æthelflæd's policy of founding burhs in the north-west, at Thelwall and Manchester in 919, and Cledematha (Rhuddlan) at the mouth of the River Clwyd in North Wales in 921. However, even as war leader he was only one of a succession of successful kings; his achievements were overshadowed because he di… When Edward died in July 924, Æthelstan was accepted by the Mercians as king. This is seen by Keynes as "the invention of a wholly new and distinctive polity", covering both West Saxons and Mercians, which was inherited by Edward with the support of Mercians at the West Saxon court, of whom the most important was Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury. [9] In a Kentish charter of 898 Edward witnessed as rex Saxonum, suggesting that Alfred may have followed the strategy adopted by his grandfather Egbert of strengthening his son's claim to succeed to the West Saxon throne by making him sub-king of Kent. Edward the Elder became King after the death of his father in 899. Edward ransomed him for the large sum of forty pounds of silver. Other medieval chroniclers expressed similar views, and he was generally seen as inferior in book learning, but superior in military success. [55], The only surviving large scale embroideries which were certainly made in Anglo-Saxon England date to Edward's reign. As ruler of the West Saxons, or Wessex, from 899 to 924, Edward extended his authority over almost all of England by conquering areas that previously had been held by Danish invaders. Anglo-Saxon kings did not automatically inherit the throne from their father. In the battle that followed, Ethelwald was killed. [50] Alan Thacker comments: Patrick Wormald observes: "The thought occurs that neither Alfred nor Edward was greatly beloved at Winchester Cathedral; and one reason for Edward's moving his father's body into the new family shrine next door was that he was surer of sincere prayers there.

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