This project is completed and I am currently working on the papers with the co-authors. The risk of infanticide and its gen-, eral implications for primate social evolution have been recently examined, This hypothesis can be generalized to include all forms of permanent male-, female association, i.e., include single males with, Kappeler, 1997). Okologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, The stunning diversity of primate social systems has been described and, analyzed in reviews by Crook and Gartlan (1966), Eisenberg, Clutton-Brock (1974), Clutton-Brock and Harvey (1977), van Schaik and, (1988), Janson (2000), and Strier (2000a). Digby, L. (1999). our work provides a counterpoint to theoretical expectations that divorce is triggered by low reproductive success, and supports adaptive explanations of divorce as a strategy to improve individual reproductive success. In contrast, highly transmissible pathogens cause frequent and prolonged epidemic outbreaks in gregarious species. Nagel, U. (1976). Residence in stable groups over many years results in increased social, complexity and perhaps cognitive abilities. First of all, those similarities stem from the fact that in both cases we are dealing with very complex non-equilibrium (but rather stable) systems whose principles of functioning and evolution are described by the General Systems' Theory, as well as by a number of cybernetic principles and laws.Secondly, in both cases we do not deal with isolated systems; in both cases we deal with a complex interaction between systems of organic systems and external environment, whereas the reaction of systems to external challenges can be described in terms of certain general principles (that, however, express themselves rather differently within the biological reality, on the one hand, and within the social reality, on the other). In the case of semi-terrestrial species, such as baboons, being in a large community helps provide protection against predatory cats, dogs, and hyenas. Males acquire Breeding seasonality affects the association between dominance and repro-. In Smuts, B.B., Cheney,D. Social organization in the aye-aye (, Strier, K. B. Additional cross-fostering studies would clearly, Using a different experimental approach, Gore (1993) manipulated, food distribution of captive rhesus macaques and hamadryas baboons with, the goal of changing the quality of female social relationships. But recent studies, demonstrated that some solitary primates are subject to intense predation, sponse to predation risk may differ among species, with solitariness being, the optimal response for nocturnal species. {�˗/__�|��[y]\�|���ˏ��(ˣ �Gۗ/£5Mzw���/�a�!�_�|q)��{�>�U���t���}IET�F����-m�k��Q�Ei7v�ݐ��j�F"qm�eU6���?p��_R��SI����E��n�������t�s< �I�n����OoS�� To reach this aim, I investigated the factors underlying individual differences in cognitive performances, such as neophobia and social context. uct of social processes. Striking ornaments of males with a potential function, in mate choice are widespread among primates (Dixson, 1998), but the few, existing studies have only suggested a function in intrasexual competition. Previous researchers who examined specific predictions, about the effects of predation on primate social systems used predation, rates to operationalize this independent variable (Anderson, 1986; Boinski, and Chapman, 1995; Cheney and Wrangham, 1987). Moreover, several forms of female-defense, polygyny exist among primates. Reichard, U. Sociality in the gray mouse lemur (, Rasoloarison, R. M., Goodman, S. M., and Ganzhorn, J, Rasoloarison, R. M., Rasolonandrasana, B., Ganzhorn, J. Predation on vertebrates in the Kirindy forest, Western Madagascar. Primates also spend a lot of time learning skills and strategies for food gathering and survival from their mothers and others in their social groups. However, infectious disease spread is driven primarily by the social organization of interactions in a group and not its size. Moreover, there is a remarkable degree of freedom for each, The most pronounced relationships exist between social organization, on the one hand, and mating system and social structure, on the other. Their reliance on food items that tend to be clumped in space and time likely explains the frequent fission-fusion behaviour that we observe between core units. Clark, A. even lowranking females can dominate high-ranking females as long as they stay nearby their “affinitive” males. In Gauthier, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp, Rowell, T. E. (1993). Predation. Effects of food distribution on foraging competition in rhesus monkeys. In van, Palombit, R. A., Seyfarth, R. M., and Cheney, D. to female baboons: Experimental and observational evidence. We then focus on interactions among the 3 components in order to identify main targets of selection and potential constraints for social evolution. Accordingly, polygynous and multimale, multifemale groups have been distinguished, 1972). Moreover, temporal instability of social, organization during the mating season contributes to a mismatch with mating, and sometimes even within populations, in social organization and mating, patterns, or both (Heymann, 2000; Steenbeek, more illuminating than those of system characteristics (Pereira and Weiss, Relationships among individuals reflect behavioral strategies that have. The resulting demographic categories broadly determine the kinds of social, relationships possible, as well as the operational sex ratio, portant predictor of sex roles, reproductive strategies and the intensity of, mating competition (Emlen and Oring, 1977; Kvarnemo and Ahnesj, Despite considerable theoretical progress and increasing knowledge, about the diversity of primate societies over the last two decades, confusion, about targets of selection, combined with a lack of clear definitions, continue, to hamper analyses of primate social systems. Cette thèse est centrée sur l’étude de la dynamique des populations animales, avec comme principal objectif d’inclure des aspects de socialité dans les modèles démographiques. Indeed, observations. of social structure: Nocturnal primates and other mammals. Social structure refers to the pattern of social interactions and the re-, sulting relationships among the members of a society, These definitions and the resulting categories focus on adult males and, females and do not consider infants and juveniles, presumably because of the, historical focus on mating systems (Crook and Gartlan, 1966), even though, they obviously also contribute importantly to a social structure. (1994). Later analyses identified the number of females in a group and their, degree of reproductive synchrony as important determinants of male mo-, nopolization potential, which is an important determinant of the outcome, of the dichotomy (Altmann, 1990; Andelman, 1986; Ridley, In 3 recent comparative studies, researchers re-examined the proposed, key determinants of the number of group males. How would we know if social organization were not adaptive? First, the availability of large comparative data bases provide opportu-, nities to test predictions of the socioecological model via comparative tests to, demonstrate correlated evolution between pairs of traits, such as predation. T, correspondance between the social organization and mating system of a. society or taxon but several facts argue against simple equation of them. Accordingly, ing to the second hypothesis, permanent association as a pair is an evolved. A preliminary field-study of the lesser mouse lemur (. It is suggested that some kind of “affinity” exists between them. Themating system of callitrichid primates: I. Interactions, relationships and social structure. We evaluate the implications of network organization across social systems despite methodological challenges, and our findings offer new perspective on the debate about the disease costs of group living. PRIMATE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 3. Sexual selection, honest advertisement and the handicap principle: Johnstone, R. A. 91, pp. of primate bonds. The same logic may explain why some authors refuse to acknowledge, the importance of the threat of male infanticide in the evolution of (primate), them, rates of male infanticide appear too low to qualify as a major force, in social evolution, but the rates may be low precisely because effective, countermeasures are already in place to minimize the risk: the white knight, rejoinder (van Schaik, 2000a).

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