stream "-�B&οǸ�=ݭ� ���K�&�pG����Ǜ�x>4�I��+!�����B�l��f�ߐ�gC�_�}=H�s���!��N��#�5_��$$]��lH�]^�G$�WF�?L>��8���. 12 0 obj 3. CISC-221 Computer Architecture Topic #5: The Memory Hierarchy Learning Guide Background Previously, we have been exposed to the concept of the "memory hierarchy" of a typical computer system. The memory hierarchy is a hierarchical collection of storage technologies that include processor registers, main memory, disk storage and even the internet as a storage medium. x��O=�A��R����>QD�x��X���>=�ߛUA�G L&afr�ְu�Z�S����&E�Cjj���O�X6��p4u:�Z,[p�Y��Sf�>w��K=6����zmOI�+��& Fundamental idea of a memory hierarchy: – For each k, the faster, smaller device at level k serves as a cache for the larger, slower device at level k+1. • Since I will not be present when you take the test, be sure to keep a list of all assumptions you have /Length 5 0 R 4 0 obj The Memory Hierarchy ! stream endobj Common principles apply at all levels of the memory hierarchy " Based on notions of caching ! M��.�`QE�)�.�M[-~�>��A����˪�|�> �!X� >> <> Services and develop a library of Memory Services for common irregular data structures and algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the cache properties of Kepler and Maxwell GPUs, and the superiority of Maxwell in shared memory performance under bank conflict. Memory Hierarchy Design Memory hierarchy design becomes more crucial with recent multi-core processors: Aggregate peak bandwidth grows with # cores: Intel Core i7 can generate two references per core per clock Four cores and 3.2 GHz clock 25.6 billion 64-bit data references/second + Performance is the key reason for having a memory hierarchy. /Creator >> stream /Contents 4 0 R >> 1 0 obj endstream /Filter /FlateDecode It ranges from the slowest but high capacity auxiliary memory to the fastest but low capacity cache memory. 8 0 obj /Title The levels in a typical memory hierarchy in a server computer shown on top (a) and in a personal mobile device (PMD) on the bottom (b). 2 0 obj /Font<< Memory Hierarchy Technology Random access: –Access time same for all locations –DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory High density, low power, cheap, slow Dynamic: need to be refreshed regularly Addresses in 2 halves (memory as a 2D matrix): –RAS/CAS (Row/Column Access Strobe) Use for main memory –SRAM: Static Random Access Memory Low density, high power, expensive, fast %PDF-1.4 COMP 140 – Summer 2014 ! Memory Hierarchy 19 CS @VT Computer Organization II ©2005-2013 CS:APP & McQuain Caches Cache: a smaller, faster storage device that acts as a staging area for a subset of the data in a larger, slower device. The Memory Hierarchy To this point in our study of systems, we have relied on a simple model of a computer system as a CPU that executes instructions and a memory system that holds instructions and data for the CPU. /Author << << >> The enhancement of this was designed i… • This quiz is to be completed as an individual, not as a team. /Parent 3 0 R Memory Hierarchy 9 More than 2 levels of memory Transfer between memory in level i and i+1 follows same principle, regardless of i Hierarchy: if item in level i, then it is also in level i+1 Hence, we restrict our discussion to 2 levels 1 Processor 2 3 4 Philipp Koehn Computer Systems Fundamentals: Memory Hierarchy 14 October 2019 !��,���g�!2x��H�j~��^H�"�]|���8 /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] endobj 9 0 obj 474 endobj So, the enhancement was mandatory. 5 0 obj 202 endobj 13 0 obj /CreationDate (D:20070102223052) Livia distributes special-ized Memory Service Elements (MSEs) throughout the memory hierarchy that schedule and execute Memory Service tasks. Autumn 2006 CSE P548 - Memory Hierarchy 1 Introduction Why memory subsystem design is important • CPU speeds increase 25%-30% per year • DRAM speeds increase 2%-11% per year Autumn 2006 CSE P548 - Memory Hierarchy 2 Memory Hierarchy Levels of memory with different sizes & speeds • close to the CPU: small, fast access At each level in the hierarchy " Block placement " Finding a block " Replacement on a miss " Write policy The BIG Picture 80 . 6 Lower Level Upper Level Memory Memory To Processor From Processor Block X Block Y Memory Hierarchy: Principle At any given time, data is copied between only two adjacent levels: –Upper level: the one closer to the processor Smaller, faster, uses more expensive technology –Lower level: the one away from the processor Bigger, slower, uses less expensive technology The faster memories are more expensive per bit and thus tend to be smaller. /ModDate (D:20070102223052) 2. Figure 2.1. >> /Contents 8 0 R }��;n$�5���2�Ǭ���'���'=�-�6DȐ:,�w,�Q�jR�F@�Ô�Hu�G#�����|ȋѿ�3��f^��P%�1ۋx�0�#!G�u��G�啡n���,��� 1%,mi��Q��x4��+Ř��%�nT5>�5��m*v�(�i��zv�g9TSl�Г���F�޳���jE��y'�TIVq 7ae�T��O�,Ƹ� ʺm(R@!���OV$% �.�E���mRZLSQ)q����LѪB�����:���8��D��tj%����6���C ��u���E�AKd�. CSCI 4717 – Memory Hierarchy and Cache Quiz General Quiz Information • This quiz is to be performed and submitted using D2L. << /MediaBox[0 0 842 595] /Filter /FlateDecode >> /MediaBox[0 0 842 595] The Memory Hierarchy The Memory Hierarchy Review of Basics Clocks A clock is a continuously running signal that alternates between two values at a fixed frequency.

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