(So need to design to tolerate errors, as they will happen even when user consciously understands system. Indirect observation methods: interaction logging; user diaries/journals. ). Important: trust, motivation (enjoyment/interest), confidence/control/agency. Much everyday knowledge is in the world, not in… Take a deep dive into Conceptual Models with our course Human-Computer Interaction - HCI . At least in theory. These various aspects of HCI can be broken down in the following ways: Cognition involves: attention, perception/recognition, memory, learning, communicating (listening, reading, speaking), problem-solving (planning, reasoning, problem-solving). Most human tasks are shallow and/or narrow, and are processed at a low-level; so slips are most common form of error. Cognitive walk-through: evaluator simulates a novice user's goals and mental state at each step of a particular task--likely assumptions, ability to see and map system features to their intentions, ability to evaluate system's response, etc. Lecture slides. A conceptual model is a representation of a system that uses concepts and ideas to form said representation.Conceptual modeling is used across many fields, ranging from the sciences to socioeconomics to software development.. Best for simple, repetitive tasks. Interviews: open/unstructured (still organized, just broader questions); structured; semi-structured (mixed); group (more than one interviewee; focus group). We're good at recognizing emotions in others and responding accordingly. Start with goals (what interested in) and recording strategy (notes, still camera, audio recording, video), but be flexible and ready to refocus. Conceptual Models, Human-Computer Interaction. Heuristic evaluation: 5 evaluators catch 75% of design problems, but each individually misses some and falsely labels other features as problems. First, some HCI researchers and practitioners lack a precise understanding of conceptual models (and related ideas), and how they affect usability. (Nielsen, 2010). synchronous vs. asynchronous; remote vs. collocated. ), Execution: Goal => Intentions -> Action Sequence -> Execution, Evaluation: Perceived State -> Interpretation -> Evaluation => Goal. Questionnaires, interviews, focus group/workshops, naturalistic observation, study existing documentation. Design concerns for agents: believability, appearance, behavior, modes of interaction. formal (board meeting) verses informal (chat) conversations. (Experiment: searching for new knowledge; indep/dep variables; control and replicatability more important.). "), overburdening user (requiring too much memory load; plugin/update required), appearance (ugly/annoying interface; sound, music, or pop-ups; distracting animations), Kinds of agent: synthetic character (ex: game NPC), animated agent (ex: Clippy or other interface tutor), emotional agent (ex: Woggles), embodied conversational agent (ex: Eliza, etc.). May be evolutionary prototyping (becomes system) or throw-away prototypes. Coherence (context, what we are talking about/referring to/responding to); tendency of conversation to diverge, but also must converge/conclude. gimmicks to cover deficiencies (ex: "Under construction" pages), redundant/obvious error messages ("The program crashed.") Functional: what the system will do (function, data requirements), Non-functional: constraints on system (context of use--physical/hardware, social, organizational, technical, environmental; kinds of users; usability goals; project resources). H. C. So Page 17 Semester A, 2008. (Not mood/temperament; or sentiment toward objects.). HCI Models, Theories and Frameworks: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science. Ethnography (an experience, difficult to summarize "implications for design", lets you build a frame of reference rather than coming to the study with one). Mental models are one of the most important concepts in human-computer interaction (HCI). Provides actual numerical times/predictions of user performance. Today, most HCI professionals are able to attribute significant meaning to the term conceptual model and to recognize its importance in aiding usability. Recognition vs. recall. Functions the system will perform; how functions are related (task progression); data requirements/information to be displayed for each function. Questionnaires: specific/structured questions for large sample. Intended system's specifications--specific, unambiguous, clear as possible, (measurable). Abstract. Lifecycle Models . Gulf: when intentions or user's actions don't map to system controls. Who are they? Understanding the concept of mental models can help you make sense of usability problems in your design. Goal (desired end state), Operators (cognitive and physical actions to move towards goal), Methods (procedures for accomplishing goal), Selection (rules for deciding between methods). Context. Conceptual model •A conceptual model is: –“…a high-level description of how a system is organized and operates” (Johnson and Henderson, 2002, p26) •Enables –“…designers to straighten out their thinking before they start laying out their widgets” (Johnson and Henderson, 2002, p28) www.id-book.com 9 Conceptual design: produce the conceptual model for the product, e.g., what the product should do, behave ... Star model for HCI and ISO 13407 . Emotion: reaction to an event based on goals, needs, or concerns of individual. Cognition is Experiential (effortless--perception, action, reaction) [unconscious] vs. Reflective (designing, learning, writing, problem-solving). CMN -- Expands the "M" of GOMS, more of a cognitive hierarchy. Fitt's Law (time to select an object on the screen): T = a + b (lg (D/(S+1)), Hick-Hyman Law (time to select from n items (such as a menu)): T = a + b*lg(n), Develop alternate designs that meet the requirements, Prototype, and evaluate interaction with the different designs, Build a solution, iteratively evaluating by these steps, specify usability and user experience goals that solution will achieve. Getting at facts, behavior, beliefs, attitudes [particularly good for last two, compared to other methods]. Affects both content and rules/coordination.

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