(2003). [19], Betaine and betalain, two phytochemical compounds prevalent in Beta vulgaris, are under basic research for their potential biological properties. Size Grading. All cultivars fall into the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. Very small flowers sit in one- to three- (rarely eight-) flowered glomerules in the axils of short bracts or in the upper half of the inflorescence without bracts. Zohary and Hopf note that beetroot is "linguistically well identified." [29], Roman and Jewish literary sources suggest that in the 1st century BC the domestic beet was represented in the Mediterranean basin primarily by leafy forms like chard and spinach beet. In Eastern Europe beet soup, such as cold borsch, is a popular dish. Betalains and anthocyanins have never been found together in the same plant species. Vegetables. [3][7], The wild forms of Beta vulgaris are distributed in southwestern, northern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. Cooling. The simple leaf blade is oblanceolate to heart-shaped, dark green to dark red, slightly fleshy, usually with a prominent midrib, with entire or undulate margin, 5–20 cm long on wild plants (often much larger in cultivated plants). It is very important that beets be immediately and thoroughly cooled after processing until the average temperature of the contents reaches 35–41 °C (95–105 °F). Regrading and Cutting. Beets have been used in folk medicines all over the world for different reasons. This provides a vast array of natural variation28 for plant breeders which as yet has remained largely untapped. Process Times and Temperatures in Still Retorts. Beta vulgaris is a herbaceous biennial or, rarely, perennial plant up to 120 cm (rarely 200 cm) height; cultivated forms are mostly biennial. It is necessary to pressure cool cans of greater than 307 diameter (87 mm) to prevent straining or buckling of the ends. [28][30] By 1840 about 5% of the world's sugar was derived from sugar beets, and by 1880 this number had risen more than tenfold to over 50%. Beetroot remains have been excavated in the Third dynasty Saqqara pyramid at Thebes, Egypt, and four charred beetroots were found in the Neolithic site of Aartswoud in the Netherlands though it has not been determined whether these were domesticated or wild forms of B. vulgaris. The larger sizes of cans may be canned without exhausting by employing a steam-flow closure combined with careful control of the can fill to obtain a headspace of 8 mm. Fresh chard is highly perishable and difficult to ship to distant markets. "Species Plantarum", (ed. The pale beetroot becomes blue-grey after cooking. In a 100 gram amount, beets supply 43 Calories, contain 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, about 2% protein and have a minute amount of fat (table). vulgaris is subsp. Selection for swollen rootedness transformed the beetroot into a biennial crop, with a crop production phase in the first season, an overwintering phase, and a seed production phase in the following season (Goldman and Navazio, 2003). Alternatively, high content of pectins (20–25%) and its availability and low cost makes sugar beet pulp a potential source of pectins. Betalains demonstrate antimicrobial, antiviral, and free radical scavenging activities, as well as inhibiting lipid peroxidation and exhibiting hepatoprotective properties (Delgado-Vargas et al., 2000; Elbe et al., 1974; Georgiev et al., 2010; Jha and Gupta, 2016; Strack et al., 2003; Tesoriere et al., 2003). The ancient Romans considered beets an important health food and an aphrodisiac. Reference should be made to the U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Beets because size limits are defined under the factor of uniformity of size for fancy and standard grades of the various styles. In A Complete Course in Canning and Related Processes (Fourteenth Edition), 2016. The ancestor of Beta vulgaris subsp. The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant (Beta vulgaris; Figure 1.5). The consumption of beets causes pink urine in some people. The fruit (utricle) is enclosed by the leathery and incurved perianth, and is immersed in the swollen, hardened perianth base. Its Aramaic name סלקא sounds like the word for "remove" or "depart"; it is eaten with a prayer "that our enemies be removed".[16]. vulgaris var. Blanching of beets has a twofold purpose. We introduced the viral gene sequence 13 K under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in sugar beet plants. For example, the recent ending of market regulation using a quota system in the European Union has led to an increased supply and decreased value for beets and beet sugar in Europe, while raising interest in alternative or higher value processing options with improved economic and environmental returns. Medicinal properties were ascribed to beetroot leaves. Standard equipment is available for this purpose. As it was shown by Rizal etal. 2): 322. The can sizes used are all in Imperial units. The enzymes are destroyed at a temperature of about 66 °C (150 °F), so the blanch must be sufficient to heat the beets, particularly those that are to be cut, to at least that temperature throughout.

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