Tied to laser-beam xerographic printers (embedding their own powerful processors and memories), the computer has become an information machine, able to produce personalized copies (of form letters, advertising material, etc,) rather than blind facsimiles in bulk, thus displacing the lead-type that had ruled printing for centuries. The addition of cathode-ray tubes for visual display of memory contents gave the user immediate access to data. By sampling the received signal at intervals (eg, every hundredth of a second) and measuring its amplitude, the computer on the ground could know the internal conditions of the missile, allowing monitoring of performance and, with accelerometers among the instruments, could compute incrementally the implied position (as it does on a direct basis for inertial navigation systems). Basic control is provided by the kernel to the devices. By being able to assess alternatives, the computer has become a major force in recreational and competitive CHESS. This step took the computer from the scientific world into that of commerce, and thus from the hands of the science graduate to those of the accountant and eventually the lay user. Computer decides if the heating needs to be turned on (or off) Energy utilities and insurance companies were among the pioneers in extending the use of computers beyond the payroll function. Heat sensor detects the current temperature and sends this data to the computer built into the heating system . With the introduction late in the 1950s of solid-state components (the transistor for logic, the magnetic core for memory), the computer became much more widely available and its applications expanded rapidly outside of as well as within science. Working to 10 or so decimal places, computers brought a precision far beyond that of trigonometric and similar tables used in mathematics. A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software. Its first application was the computation of theoretical ballistic tables for traditional bombs, but calculations for the atomic bomb and then for guided missiles soon became the driving force for computer development. Though also involving much heavy mathematics, the needs of the space industry related more to data handling, as multitudinous observations had to be processed to derive actual trajectories, to monitor performance via telemetry, and to control the craft. Computer is also used to manage distribution system, advertising and selling activities. The main components of OS are the kernel, user interface, and application programming interface. Many observers believe that American space achievements were completely dependent on computers (though the comparable Soviet achievements were very much less so). Many early electronic computers resembled their mechanical predecessors in that they could multiply or divide only by repeated execution of addition or subtraction operations, but their revolutionary speed and precision thrust them quickly into fields involving heavy multiplication. Milestones:Apollo Guidance Computer, 1962-1972, Archives:Computer Aided Network and Circuit Analysis and Design, Archives:New Applications of the Computer: Thelma Estrin and Biomedical Engineering, Mine Emergency Response Interactive Training Simulation, Archives:Optimization Using Personal Computers, First-Hand:The Diffusion Mode Operation of FET Devices. The computer, as switching exchange and as part of modems, is essential to this control and enhances use further by compacting blank or otherwise repetitive data for transmission. The user interface helps in user interaction with the system. Miniaturization allowed both telemetry and modems to be computer applications in themselves; it also permitted computers to store data within missiles and space probes, to control those vehicles, and ultimately to be reprogrammable remotely via radio links (see also SPACE TECHNOLOGY). Processing speed was the motivation, allowing the reduction of the size of inventory and of the delay in receiving payment, and hence decreasing tied-up funds. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software. The sampling converted the continuously varying analog signal to the digital form required by the computer. Marketing applications provide information about the products to customers. As a toy or a tool, the computer now plays a significant role in the daily life of most Canadians, usually without them being aware that computers are involved. Installed in aircraft, they will soon make feasible completely automatic landing, navigation and even AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (the University of Calgary being a leader in this field of geomatics). Another set of multiple satellites, each transmitting a tightly controlled radio signal from its known orbit and with 3 or more simultaneously in view, allows a portable computerized receiver on the ground to derive its position within a few metres, giving us the Global Positioning System. Word processors evolved for simple correspondence, whereas software for desk-top publishing serves in the preparation of catalogues and books, and, because of its need for speed, in the NEWSPAPER industry. Digitized TELEVISION is already being provided by some satellites; with a computer in the receiver able to control and correct transmission errors, it heralds a great step up in picture quality (see also COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS). With video on discs and using only its digital monitor and speakers, the computer has become a multimedia station (of major significance to COMPUTER-ASSISTED LEARNING). By the 1970s an extensive array of logic circuits or of memory could be etched onto a small chip of silicon, opening the way for the enormous proliferation of computer equipment and applications. From transcontinental PIPELINES, refineries and NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS to traffic signals, building heating and ventilation, machine tools, car engines and automatic braking systems, down to the microwave oven and washing machine, the computer is widely in control. The following 47 pages are in this category, out of 47 total. Computer can be used in business in the following ways. A set of programs and instructions to connect the computer with the main server to enable sharing of resources and information with the server and other connected computers. (iii) People: The most important element of a computer system is its users. Computers play a central role in an organization’s management information system. 5. The code is written by application developers using the application programming interface. MATHEMATICS spawned the computer in the 1940s and gave it its name. Telephone lines have become a vital component of computer applications for connecting terminals to distant databanks, for interchange of data between computers and for e-mail and other facilities of the vast emerging world of the INTERNET. The high-quality picture achievable by computer is now displacing traditional art methods and material for many illustrations and for printed and film media. Using early and cumbersome computers, the Canadian navy, with its DATARS Project, pioneered Command/Control of warships. The underlying method used for some calculation or manipulation is known as an algorithm The electronic computing of pay followed, particularly where hourly rates meant extensive multiplication. An application, or application program, is a software program that runs on your computer. 2. The computer system with front end application software , a database management system ( DBMS ) and the database is essential to manage such large volumes of data. Compared with numbers, textual data is expensive to enter and store (because of its great inherent redundancy), and it lacks the notable profitability of automatic multiplication. From its rough laboratory beginnings the computer has come to embrace a limitless variety of applications, now generally using standardized components mass-produced at a minor unit cost. Nothing but which is a small computer program 'Embedded' into a chip in the device inside the mobile phone or digital diary known as Embedded Systems. Various practical applications of computing such as computer aided design and telecommunications community Subcategories. The emergence of the PC (personal computer) in the 1980s and its rapid enhancement through the escalation of chip capacities were crucial to these developments - but can be seen equally as driven by them, since they allowed the computer to be a superior typewriter affordable for the home. Within a company office, a single network encompasses commercial and scientific applications, secretarial work, message communications and even speech communications (see OFFICE AUTOMATION).

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